8) Diamanta Vania Lavi
21) Alex Low Shaw Boon
22) Chua Zhi Han
27) Kwan Zhong-Hao Joshua
28) Lai Jue Hao
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Waterfalls are sudden, steep, vertical flows of fast-flowing water falling from great heights. A waterfall is usually found in the upper course of a river where the gradient is steep.
Waterfalls are normally formed in two ways. They may be formed through the erosion of rocks of different resistance or through faulting.
Waterfalls form where the river bed has a layer of harder rock
and layer of softer rocks.
- The river erodes the less resistant rock more rapidly and this causes a change in the gradient of the river course, undercutting the harder rock.
- The hard, overhanging rock eventually collapses.
- Over time, the river plunges from a great height to hit the river bed below with tremendous force.
- A waterfall is formed.repeated pounding of the river bed may leave a depression at the base of the waterfall.
- The collapsed rocks fall into the plunge pool causing more erosion of the soft rocks and a deeper plunge pool.
A waterfall may also be formed through faulting. Faulting involves the movement of rocks along large cracks in the Earth's crust. This movement may result in the lifting of one block of land above the other. When a river flows down from the edge of the uplifted block, a water and plunge pool are formed.
- A river flows over land before displacement.
- A water is formed after the displacement of rocks along a fault. Repeated pounding of river bed causes a plunge pool to form.
Source: Earth: Our Home 3 (Full Geography)
Kuang Si is a beautiful series of tiered waterfalls and natural pools in dense tropical forest
Indiana Jones filmed Kuang Si Waterfall